The use of the term “Europe” has developed gradually throughout history. In antiquity, the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the River Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia. Europe’s eastern frontier was defined in the 1st century by geographer Strabo at the River Don. The Book of Jubilees described the continents as the lands given by Noah to his three sons. Europe was defined as stretching from the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar, separating it from North Africa, to the Don, separating it from Asia.
The etymology of Europe is uncertain. One theory suggests that it is derived from the Greek εὐρύς (eurus), meaning “wide, broad” and ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- (ōps/ōp-/opt-), meaning "eye, face, countenance", hence Eurṓpē, “wide-gazing”, “broad of aspect”. Another theory suggests that it is based on a Semitic word such as the Akkadian erebu meaning “to go down, set” (in reference to the sun), cognate to Phoenician 'ereb “evening; west” and Arabic Maghreb, Hebrew ma'arav.
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Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period.
The coins of France speak of an ever stronger centralization of power in the hands of kings.
Due to its shape, Italy (officially the Italian Republic) is often referred to as lo Stivale (the boot).
The Netherlands' name literally means "Lower Countries", influenced by its low land and flat geography.
Poland's establishment dates back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly that of today's Poland, converted to Christianity.
The numismatics of Portugal is mainly determined by gold. The Portuguez is the most renowned gold coin of Portugal.
Russia's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.
In the 17th century, Sweden expanded and became the Swedish Empire - one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century.
The numismatics of Switzerland has a wide variety of denominations, styles and types, as befits the eventful history of the area.
Turkey is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century.