France

France

The rise of kingdom in France during the Middle Ages was a constant struggle between the king, the nobility dedicated to its independence, and the temporal power of the church. In the 13th century, the kings came from the house of the Capetians. From their headquarters on today's Île-de-France they enforced their idea of a unitary state. From 1226 France became a hereditary monarchy; in 1250 Louis IX was one of the most powerful rulers of the West.

After the death of the last Capetian in 1328 Philip of Valois was elected the new king. Eduard III Plantagenet, king of England and duke of Aquitaine, raised claims to the throne, which led to the Hundred Years War in 1337. England celebrated great successes, especially at the beginning of the war, but the resistance movement sparked by Jeanne d'Arc ultimately led to the recapture of the lost territories.

The Renaissance was also marked by an even stronger centralization and made France an absolutist state under rulers of the House of Bourbon. So began the era of French dominance in Europe. All European rulers followed the example of French culture. Under Louis XIV, the so-called Sun King, who was enthroned as a four-year-old in 1643 and ruled until 1715, absolutism reached its peak.


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Product no.: 120537

France, Third Republic, 1871-1940, 5 Francs 1876 A

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Product no.: 369713

France, Charles X., 1824-1830, 5 Francs 1830 MA

 

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Product no.: 279307

France, Francis I., 1515-1547, Ecu d'or au soleil undated

Sun across crowned coat of arms

Rv.Cross fleury, two F and two lis in angles

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