Before 1871 "Germany" was a sort of accumulation of smaller principalities, kingdoms and duchies. The country was a political rag rug with unclear borders. However, for coin collectors this collection area is highly interesting, since every state had its own coins and currencies.
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In 1863 Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, re-united all Anhalt lands under his rule, since other lines had expired by then.
The Grand Duchy of Baden was a state in the southwest of Germany, on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918.
The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918.
Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany. Its capital was Düsseldorf.
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was an historical ducal state within domains of the Holy Roman Empire.
The history of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen is characterized by the Hansa, trade and seafaring as well as a striving for independence.
Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire. From 855 the German kings and emperors were elected in Frankfurt.
The history of Hamburg begins with its foundation in the 9th century as a mission settlement to convert the Saxons.
The Kingdom of Hanover was established in 1814 by the Congress of Vienna with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories.
The Electorate of Hesse (also known as Hesse-Kassel) was a state elevated by Napoleon in 1803 from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel.
Lippe (later Lippe-Detmold and then again Lippe) was a historical state in Germany, ruled by the House of Lippe.
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a territory in Northern Germany held by the House of Mecklenburg residing at Schwerin.
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a territory in Northern Germany, held by the younger line of the House of Mecklenburg.
The Duchy of Nassau was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
The Duchy of Oldenburg — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.
The Kingdom of Prussia was a kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (German: Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was part of the German Empire.
Schaumburg-Lippe was created as a county in 1647, became a principality in 1807, a free state in 1918.
The Kingdom of Westphalia (1807–1813) was a vassal state of the First French Empire and was ruled by Napoleon's brother Jérôme Bonaparte.
Württemberg, once a Duchy within the Holy Roman Empire, in 1806 became the Kingdom with the break-up of empire.
The German Confederation (1815-1866) was an association of states in Central Europe replacing the former Holy Roman Empire.