The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000-1946 with the exception of 1918-1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom in about the year 1000; his family (the Árpád dynasty) led the monarchy for 300 years. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world.
Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories in the 16th century, the monarchy split into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary and the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania. The House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and also played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire.