The use of the term “Europe” has developed gradually throughout history. In antiquity, the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned that the world had been divided by unknown persons into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Libya (Africa), with the Nile and the River Phasis forming their boundaries—though he also states that some considered the River Don, rather than the Phasis, as the boundary between Europe and Asia. Europe’s eastern frontier was defined in the 1st century by geographer Strabo at the River Don. The Book of Jubilees described the continents as the lands given by Noah to his three sons. Europe was defined as stretching from the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar, separating it from North Africa, to the Don, separating it from Asia.
The etymology of Europe is uncertain. One theory suggests that it is derived from the Greek εὐρύς (eurus), meaning “wide, broad” and ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- (ōps/ōp-/opt-), meaning "eye, face, countenance", hence Eurṓpē, “wide-gazing”, “broad of aspect”. Another theory suggests that it is based on a Semitic word such as the Akkadian erebu meaning “to go down, set” (in reference to the sun), cognate to Phoenician 'ereb “evening; west” and Arabic Maghreb, Hebrew ma'arav.
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Organised prehistoric cultures began developing on Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic period.
The Kingdom of Denmark is a sovereign state that comprises Denmark and two autonomous constituent countries.
France, officially the French Republic, is a sovereign state comprising territory in Western Europe plus overseas regions and territories.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Due to its shape, Italy (officially the Italian Republic) is often referred to as lo Stivale (the boot).
Slavonia is, alongside Dalmatia, Croatia proper, and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a country in western Europe. It is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. It is the last grand duchy of the former twelve grand duchies in Europe and the last one in the world.
The Netherlands' name literally means "Lower Countries", influenced by its low land and flat geography.
The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, when parts of the land were of the Holy Roman Empire.
Poland's establishment dates back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly that of today's Poland, converted to Christianity.
The land within the borders of current Portugal has been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times.
Russia's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD.
In the 17th century, Sweden expanded and became the Swedish Empire - one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century.
Vreneli is the most popular gold coin from Switzerland. The 100 franc was only struck in 1925 with a very limited mintage of 5,000.
The origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence.
Czechoslovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918 until its peaceful dissolution on 1 January 1993.
Turkey is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century.
Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City is a walled enclave within the city of Rome. With an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of about 1000 it is the smallest sovereign state in the world by both area and population.